## Signals & Systems – ES 301

Disciplines : B.E. Electronic Engineering

Term : First Term Third Year

Effective : 09ES-Batch and onwards

Marks : Theory (100) Practical (50)

__Objectives:__ This is a
basic course that is intended to provide the fundamentals of signals, Systems
and transforms to the electronic engineering students. This course is aimed to
build a comprehensive foundation for later higher level course like
communication systems, Control systems and Digital Signal Processing. Both
discrete time and continuous time signals system and transforms are covered in
this course.

__Course
Outline:__

Introduction, classification of
signals, basic operations on signals, Signal representation and modes, system
characteristics.

__Time
domain Analysis__

Sinusoidal and complex exponential
signals, Singularity function signals, Signal energy and Signal power.
Orthogonal signals, Signal representation by Generalized Fourier series,
Convolution integral and its properties, Cross convolution and Auto correlation
functions.

**Frequency
Domain Representation and Analysis.**

Spectra and bandwidths of signals,
Fourier Series representation of signals, Fourier transform, Energy density
spectrum, Power density spectrum, Inverse Fourier Transform, System frequency
response, Phase delay and Group delay.

Continuous-time filters: First order
and 2^{nd} order Filters, Ideal filters, Butter worth and Chebyshev
filter design sampled. Continuous-time signals: Ideal sampling, Sampling
theorem, Practical sampling effects. Nyquist criteria, Frequency Domain
representation of Discrete-time signals: Z – transform, Inverse Z-transform,
transform solution of difference equations, Stability of linear discrete-time
systems.

__Lab
outline__

Study of various types of signals,
Analysis of signals, Filter design, Sampling using different parameters,
MATLAB-based simulation tools box for signal processing, Simulation and
development of basic signal processing algorithms, Aliasing, Quantization and
Internal arithmetic operations, Signal generation and multi-rate
processing.

**Recommended
Books**

- Gordon E. Carlson,
“Signals and Linear System Analysis” 2
^{nd} Edition 1998, John
Wiley & sons, Inc ISBN: -10.0-471-12465-6.
- Simon Haykin, “Signals
and Systems” 2
^{nd} Edition 2003. John Wiley & sons, Inc ISBN:
-10.0-471-37851-8
- Oppenheim and Sillsky,
“ Signals and Systems” Prentice Hall

** **

## Embedded System Design – ES 302

Disciplines : B.E. Electronic Engineering

Term : First Term Third Year

Effective : 09ES-Batch and onwards

Marks : Theory (100) Practical (50)

__Objectives:__** **Introduce the trends and challenges in the design of
embedded systems and teach chip technologies and design tools needed for these
systems.

__Course
Outline:__

Basic of Embedded system, Trends and
challenges in embedded system design, Introduction to the design and use of
single-purpose processors (hardware) and general-purpose processors (software),
Memories and busses, Hardware/software tradeoffs, Advanced computation models,
Control systems, Chip technologies, Modern design tools, Embedded processor
selection, Hardware / firmware partitioning, Glue logic , Circuit design, Circuit
layout, I/O interface with 8255A PPE (Programmable peripheral interface),
PIC (Programmable Interrupt Controller)
and Direct Memory Access Controller
(DMAC). Study of Intel 8051; Microcontroller architecture and instruction set.

__Lab
Outline:__

Each student will be required to build
and debug a micro-controller board. The course will culminate with significant
final project which would extend the base microcontroller board completed
earlier in the course.

__Recommended
Books.__

- Frank vahid and Tony
D. Givargis, “Embedded System Design: A Unified Hardware / Software
Introduction, John Wiley & sons, Inc ISBN: 047136782.
- Scott Maekenzie “ The
8051 Microcontroller” AROUND.S. BERGER “Embedded System Design an
introduction to process tools & techniques, Edition 2002.
- Han-way-Hang PIC Micro
controller : An introduction to software & hardware interfacing,
Thomson Delmar learning: 1 Edition July 2004, ISBN: 1401839673.
- Muhammad Ali Mazidi,
Jaince Mazidi & Rolin Mc Kinlay, 8051 Micro controller & Embedded
system, 2
^{nd} Edition-2005 Prentice Hall, September 2005 ISBN:
013119402X.

** **

## Probability & Random
Veriables – MS 351

Disciplines : B.E. Electronic Engineering

Term : First Term Third Year

Effective : 09ES-Batch and onwards

Marks : Theory (100) Practical (00)

__Objectives:__** **Upon completion of this course the students should be
able to:

·
Understand
the basic of probability and its importance in the design of communication
systems.

·
Have
an awareness of random signal and to analyze the principles tools to model it
random signal and noise.

__Course
outline:__

Set theory, Basic concepts of
probability, Conditional probability, Independent events, Bay’s formula, Discrete
and continuous random variables, Distributions and density function, Probability
distributions (Binomial, Poisson, Hyper geometric, Normal, Uniform and Exponential),
mean, variable, standard deviations, moments and moments generating functions,
linear regression and curve fitting, limits theorems, stochastic Processes,
first and second order characteristics, Applications, Autocorrelation, Auto Covariance Stationary Processes, Wide
Sense Stationary Processes Strict Sense Stationary processes, Transformation of
Stochastic Processes, Correlation, Linear Mean Square Estimation and Filtering
Problems, Ergodic Process, power Spectrum, Thermal Noise, White noise,
band-Limited white noise, Linear systems with random inputs, Optimum Linear
Systems, Application.

__Recommended
Books__

- Peyton Z. Peeples, “Probability,
Random Variables and Random Signals Principles”, Mc-Graw Hill
International Edition.
- Robert Grover Brown,
“Introduction to Random Signals and Applied Kalman Filtering” John Willey
and Sons.
- Susan Milton and Jesse
C Arnold, “Introduction to probability and Statistics: Principles and
Application for Engineering and the Computing Sciences” Fourth edition, Mc
– GrawHill, ISBN: 007246836.
- B.P Lathi, “Modern
Digital and Analog Communication Systems” Holt, Rinehart & Winslon
Series.

## Integrated Circuit Design &
Application – ES 303

Disciplines : B.E. Electronic Engineering

Term : First Term Third Year

Effective : 09ES-Batch and onwards

Marks : Theory (100) Practical (50)

__Objectives:__ Teach the analysis, Design and application
of Operational amplifier, Introduce the fabrication of Integral Circuits.

__Course
Outlines:__

**Differential
Amplifier**

differential amplifier using BJTs and FETs (DC and AC
analysis) , Current sources, Differential Amplifier using Darlington
configuration.

**Operational
Amplifiers**

Ideal Op-amp, Analysis of op-amp
action, Op-amp specifications, Interpreting Op-amp data sheets. CMRR (Common
Mode Rejection Ratio), Offset voltage an current, Temperature rating, Output
swing, Slew rate, (frequency response).

**OP-AMP
circuits and applications**

(Amplification, Inverting,
Non-inverting, Voltage follower, Summing amplifier, Integrated, Differential),
Schmitt trigger, other applications, Analogue and digital circuit interface
with applications. Multivibrator (Astable, Bi-stable and Mono Stable). 555
Timer IC, IC voltage regulators, Waveform generating ICs.

**Active
Filters**

Introduction to Active Filters and
their types.

**VLSI
Design**

Presentation of concepts and techniques
used in fabrication of VLSI (Very large Scale Integrated Circuit), integrated
circuit layout, NMOS(N-Channel Metal Oxide Semi Conductor) layout and
fabrication Design issues.

__Lab
Outline:__

Comparator Analysis, Non-inverting Amplifier,
Digital to analog Converter, Dual regulator, Switched capacitor voltage
converter. Op Amp DC characteristic measurement, Op-Amp speed,
single supply Op-Amp, Function generator, Phase locked loop frequency
synthesizer.

**Recommended
Books**

- Adel S. Sedra and
Kenneth C, Smith, “Micro electronic circuits” 5
^{th} Edition,
2003, Oxford
University press,
ISBN-10:0195142519, ISBN-13:978019542518.
- Thomas Floyd and David
Buchla “Basic Operational Amplifier an Linear Integrated circuits” 2
^{nd}
Edition 1999 Prentice Hall ISBN-13:9780130829870
- Rober T-Paynter
“Introductory Electronic Devices and Circuits” 9
^{th}
International Edition 1997
- Zainalabdin Navabi “
verliog Computer-based Training Course” 1
^{st} Edition, 2002, McGraw-Hill
ISBN: 0071374736.

## Control Systems – ES 304

Disciplines : B.E. Electronic Engineering

Term : First Term Third Year

Effective : 09ES-Batch and onwards

Marks : Theory (100) Practical (50)

__Objectives:__** **To
teach the theory and methods of design and analysis of feedback control systems** **

__Course
Outline:__

Introduction to Control Systems, Open
loop and closed-loop system and their transfer functions, block diagrams,
Introduction to modeling, Formation of differential equations of Electrical,
Mechanical and other physical systems Transfer function, Stability Routh’s
Stability Criterion. Types and analysis of feed back control systems, Root Loci
Techniques, Bode plots, Polar Plots, Nyquist stability criterion, Gain and
phase margins, Steady-state and transient response of first order, Second order
and higher order systems. Introduction to state space concepts and design
techniques, formation and solution of state equations, Eigen values and Eigen
vector, Transfer function matrices complete state controllability and complete
state observe ability, introduction, features and characteristics of PID
Controllers.

__Lab
Outline:__

Familiarization with MATLAB Control
System tool box and MATLAB-SIMULINK tool box: simulation of step response and
impulse with unity feedback using MATLAB: determination of root locus, Bode
plot, and Nyquist plot using MATLAB; determination of PI, PD and PID controller
action of first-order simulated process.

**Recommended
Books**

- K Ogata, “Modern
Control Engineering”, Fourth Edition, 2002. Prentice Hall, ISBN 13:9780130609076.
- Benjammin C. Cuo,
“Automatic Control System” Eighth Edition, 2003, John Wiley & Sons,
ISBN-10:0-471-38148-9
- S.K. Bhathacharya
“Control System Engineering”
- Richard C Dorf. &
Robert H. Bishop. “Modern Control System” 11
^{th} Edition 2007,
prentice Hall: ISBN-10:0132270285 & ISBN-13:978-0132270281.

## Wave Propagation & Antennas
– ES 305

Disciplines : B.E. Electronic Engineering

Term : Second Term Third
Year

Effective : 09ES-Batch and onwards

Marks : Theory (100) Practical (50)

__Objectives:__** **To
familiarize the students to Electromagnetic wave propagation in different media
and study of features and working of various types of antennas.

__Course
Outline:__

**Uniform
Plane Wave propagation.**

Review of Maxwell’s equations, Phase
and group velocity, Properties of conductors and dielectrics motionless wave
equation, guided waves, pointing theorem.

__Transmission
lines__

Types of transmission lines,
Characteristic impedance of a transmission line, Transmission line parameters,
Finite length transmission line, Properties of transmission line, Couplers of
transmission lines.

**Wave
Propagation in Transmission Media.**

Traveling waves and standing waves, TE
(transverse electric) waves, Tm (transverse magnetic), Principal mode of
propagation, Waves attenuation between parallel planes.

**Ground
Wave Propagation **

Plane earth reflection, space and
surface waves, spherical earth propagation Tropospheric waves need confirmation.

**Ionosphere
waves **

Introduction to ionosphere. Ionosphere
wave propagation, Reflection and refraction in wave propagation, Attenuation in
ionosphere waves, Regular and irregular variations of ionosphere.

**Antennas
and Radiating System **

Introduction to antennas Properties of
two element array, Vertical and Horizontal patterns in broadcast arrays,
Multiplication pattern, Linear arrays, binomial arrays, Antenna gain and Effective
area, Antenna terminal impedance, Transmission loss between antenna resistance,
Reciprocity Theorem, Introduction to microwave antennas (horn, parabolic horn,
and their parameters)

__Lab
Outline:__

Measurement of line attenuation,
Measurement of reflection co-efficient using the reflectometric bridge,
Familiarization with real time simulations of antenna radiation, pattern
(magnitude &frequency response. The dipole in free space, effects of
surroundings, dual sources, gain, directivity & aperture , ground
reflections, the monopole, phased monopoles, resonance, impedance &
standing waves, return loss & VSWR measurements. Parasitic elements. Multi
element parasitic arrays. Stacked & Bayed arrays.

**Recommended
books**

- Antenna Theory
Analysis & Design By A.C
Balanis.
- Kraus. J.D and Kraver
K.R “ Electromagnetics” McGraw-Hill International Edition.1992.
- Jordan E.C
“Engineering Electromagnetics and radiating systems”.
- Marshall S.V
“Electromagnetic concepts and Applications” Prentice-Hall International
Edition 1990

## Analogue & Digital
Communication – ES 306

Disciplines : B.E. Electronic Engineering

Term : Second Term Third
Year

Effective : 09ES-Batch and onwards

Marks : Theory (100) Practical (50)

__Objectives:__** **Develop fundamental
understanding of communication systems with emphasis on signal modulation
techniques. Teach both analog and digital techniques.

__Course Outline__

Introduction
and Block diagram of a communication system. Definition and importance of
Modulation and Demodulation.

**Amplitude Modulation**

Time-domain
and frequency-domain representation of AM Waves. Double sideband (DSB), Single
sideband (SSB) and vestigial sideband(VSB). Application of DSB, SSB & VSB.
Demodulation of the above AM Systems.

**Angle / FM Modulation**

The time
domain and frequency domain representation of FM and PM waves Comparison of FM
and PM, Narrow band wideband FM. Demodulation of FM and PM Signals.

**Pulse Modulation**

Introduction
and Block diagram of digital communication system, Pulse amplitude modulation,
pulse width modulation, pulse position modulation, pulse code modulation (PCM),
Differential PCM, Delta modulation.

**Digital Modulation Techniques**

Channel capacity,
Shannon Hartley theorem, ASK, FSK, PSK, QPSK, QAM.

**Multiplexing**

Time Division
multiplexing, Bit and Byte interleaving, Frequency Division Multiplexing,
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing, Wave length Division Multiplexing.

**Spread spectrum modulation**

Advantages
and Disadvantages of spread Spectrum modulation. Direct sequence and
Frequency-hop spread spectrum.

**Information Theory**

Information
content of a message, Average information per symbol and source information
rate. Discrete and continuous channels. Huffman coding.

__Lab Outline:__

Study and
analysis of analog and digital modulation and demodulation techniques. AM, FM,
DSB, SSB, ASK, FSK, PSK and QAM. Study of pulse modulation techniques: PAM,
PWM, PCM.

Study of
different multiplexing techniques: Time division multiplexing (TDM), Frequency
division multiplexing (FDM), wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), MATLAB /
SIMULINK modeling and simulation of a simple transceiver ; a mini project is
recommended.

**Recommended Books**

- B.P Lathi. “ Modern Digital
and Analog communication System” Third edition, 1998, oxford University
Press ISBN-13:9780195110098.
- Leon couch, “Digital &
Analog communication System”, Seventh Edition, 2007, Prentice Hall ISBN:
978013142492.
- Dunlop. J. Smith. “
Telecommunication Engineering”
ISBN-0442305869, ISBN-0748740449
- Simon Hykin “
Communication Systems” 3
^{rd} Edition, ISBN-0471178691
- Couch. W.C “Analog & Digital Communication
Systems.
- Wayne Tomasi “Advance
Communication Systems” Prentice Hall, ISBN: 0130221260
- G. Kennedy. “Electronic
Communication Engineering”
- Frenzel “Communication
Electronics”

## Numberical Methods - MS 352

Disciplines : B.E. Electronic Engineering

Term : Second Term Third
Year

Effective : 09ES-Batch and onwards

Marks : Theory (100) Practical (00)

__Objectives:
__** **Teach the use of computers for the numerical solution
of engineering problems.

__Course
outline:__

**Error
analysis**

Type of errors (relative, Absolute,
Inherent, Round off Truncation), Significant digits and numerical instability,
Flow chart, Use of any Computation tools to Analyses the Numerical Solution.

**Linear
Operators**

Functions of operators, Difference
operators and the derivative operators, identities.

**Difference
Equations**

Linear Homogeneous and non homogenous
difference equations.

**Solution
of Non-Linear Equations**

Numerical methods for finding the roots
of transcendental and polynomial equations (Secant, Newton-Raphson, Cheyshev
and Graeffe’s roots squaring methods) Rate of convergence and stability of an
iterative method.

**Solution
of Linear Equations.**

Numerical Methods for finding the
solutions of linear equations(Gauss Elimination, Gauss-Jordan Elimination, triangularization,
Cholesky, Jacobian and Gauss-Seidel)

**Interpolation
& Curve Fitting**

Lagrange’s Newton Hermit, Spline,
least squares approximation (Linear and
non-linear curves)

**Numerical
Integrations & Differentiation**

Computation of integrals using
Trapezoidal rules. 1/3^{rd} Simpson’s rule, 3/8^{th}. Simpson’s
rule. Composite Simpson’s and Trapezoidal rules. Computation of solutions
of differential equation using Euler
methods, Euler modified method and Runge Kutta method. Numerical solutions of
partial differential equations (Optimization problem Simplex method) Steepest
Ascent and Steepest Descent Methods.

**This
Subject is to be supplemented with extensive computer exercise.**

**Recommended
Books**

- Steven C. Chapra,
Raymond P. Canale. “Numerical Methods for Engineers” Fifth Edition 2002,
McGrawHill, ISBN: 0073101567
- Curtis F. Gerals,
“Applied Numerical Analysis” Seventh Edition 2003, addition Wesley
Publishing company, ISBN: 0321133048

## FPGA-Based System Design – ES
307

Disciplines : B.E. Electronic Engineering

Term : Second Term Third
Year

Effective : 09ES-Batch and onwards

Marks : Theory (100) Practical (50)

o__bjectives:__** **Teach
the design of digital electronic circuits with field programmable arrays.

__Course
Outline__

Introduction to Programmable logic
devices, PLD arrays, Classification of PLDs, PLD architectures the PROM
Programmable arrays logic (PAL), Programmable logic (PLA), Digital Design and
FPGA, FPGA-based system design, manufacturing process, transistor
characteristics, CMOS logic gates, wires, registers and RAM, package and pads,
FPGA architectures, SRAM-based FPGAs, permanently-programmed FPGAs circuit
design of FPGA fabrics, architectures of FPGA fabrics, logic design process,
combinational network delay, power and energy optimization, arithmetic logic
elements, logic implementation using FPGAs, physical design (PnR) for FPGAs,
synthesis process, sequential design using FPGAs, sequential machine design
process, sequential design style, FSM design, ASM design.

__Lob
Outline:__

Introduction to PLDs, SPLDs and verliog
HDL. Gate-level modeling, data flow modeling, behavioral modeling, design,
simulation, synthesis and fitting of combinational circuits. Design and
implementation of and FSM and memory.

**Recommended
Books**

- Wayne Wolf,
“FPGA-based System Design”, with CD-ROM, 2004 prentice Hall, ISBN:
0131424610.
- Samir Palnifkar,
“Verilog HDL” Second Edition, 200,
Prentice Hall, ISBN: 0130449113.
- Michael D. Ciletti, “
Advance digital Design with the Verilog HDL” first Edition, 2003 Prentice
hall ISBN: 0130891614
- Michael John Sebastian
Smith “ Application- Specific Integrated Circuits” First edition, 1997,
Addison Wesley, ISBN: 0201500221.

## Digital Signal Processing – ES
308

Disciplines : B.E. Electronic Engineering

Term : Second Term Third Year

Effective : 09ES-Batch and onwards

Marks : Theory (100) Practical (50)

__Objectives:__ This course deals with the breadth and depth of digital
signal processing, Analysis of Discrete time signals and Systems, Discrete
Fourier frequency analysis, Realization structure, analysis and design methods
of Fir & HR filters. The course will also enable the students to use MATLAB
other DSP software and DSP processors.

__Course Outline__

**Introduction**

Introduction
to discrete-time Signals and System, Convolution sum, Auto convolution and correlation of discrete-signal.

**Frequency domain Analysis**

Pulse
transfer function, poles and zeros. Stability impulse, step and ramp response
of linear time invariant systems.

Discrete
Fourier Transform, Power Density spectra, Discrete-Time Fourier Transform, Fast
Fourier Transform (FFT)

**Digital filters**

Introduction
to filters, Butterworth and Chebyshev approximation of analogue filters finite
impulse response (FIR) and infinite impulse Response (IIR) filters.

**Design of FIR filter**

Window
methods, Frequency Sampling method, Optimum methods, Design of FIR
Differentiators and Hilbert Transform, Realization and Implementation issues.

**Design of IIR Filter **

Pole-zero
method, Approximation of derivatives, methods Z-Transform method, impulse
Invariance method, Bilinear Transformation methods.

**Design of Digital Filters based on Least-Squares
Methods**

**Multirate Digital Signal Processing**

Introduction,
Decimation, Interpolation, Sampling rate conversion by rational factor, Filter
design and implementation of sampling rate conversion, Multistage
implementations of sampling rate conversion, Sampling rate conversion of band
pass signals, Applications of multirate signal processing.

**Power spectrum estimation**

Computation
of the energy density spectrum, the
periodgram. The use of the DFT in power spectrum estimation. Non
parametric and parametric method for
power spectrum estimation.

**Adaptive DSP**

Introduction,
adaptive Noise canceller Filter, least squares and Recursive least squares
method, Wiener-Hoof equations, least
mean squares algorithm, application.

__Lab Outline:__

**MATLAB **based simulation tool box for signal processing,
simulation development of basic signal processing algorithms, study of general
signal processing, concept such as sampling, aliasing, quantization, internal
arithmetic operation, signal generation, spectrum estimation and fast
transforms, sampling rate conversation and multi-rate processing, digital
filter design.

**Recommended Books.**

- M. Ifeachor and B.W
Jarvis, “ Digital Signal Processing” a practical Approach”, Prentice Hall,
ISBN-0201596199.2003
- J.G Proakis and D.G
Manolakis, “ Digital Signal Processing” Macmillan publishing Company.
- Allan V.Oppenhiem, “
Digital Signal Processing”.
- Sen. M Kuo, “Digital
Signal Processors: Architecture, Implementation and Applications,” 1
^{st}
Edition 2005, Prentice Hall, ISBN: 0130352144.