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## Signals & Systems – ES 301

Disciplines                               :           B.E. Electronic Engineering

Term                                        :           First Term  Third Year

Effective                                  :           09ES-Batch and onwards

Marks                                      :           Theory (100)               Practical (50)

Objectives:      This is a basic course that is intended to provide the fundamentals of signals, Systems and transforms to the electronic engineering students. This course is aimed to build a comprehensive foundation for later higher level course like communication systems, Control systems and Digital Signal Processing. Both discrete time and continuous time signals system and transforms are covered in this course.

Course Outline:

Introduction, classification of signals, basic operations on signals, Signal representation and modes, system characteristics.

Time domain Analysis

Sinusoidal and complex exponential signals, Singularity function signals, Signal energy and Signal power. Orthogonal signals, Signal representation by Generalized Fourier series, Convolution integral and its properties, Cross convolution and Auto correlation functions.

Frequency Domain Representation and Analysis.

Spectra and bandwidths of signals, Fourier Series representation of signals, Fourier transform, Energy density spectrum, Power density spectrum, Inverse Fourier Transform, System frequency response, Phase delay and Group delay.

Continuous-time filters: First order and 2nd order Filters, Ideal filters, Butter worth and Chebyshev filter design sampled. Continuous-time signals: Ideal sampling, Sampling theorem, Practical sampling effects. Nyquist criteria, Frequency Domain representation of Discrete-time signals: Z – transform, Inverse Z-transform, transform solution of difference equations, Stability of linear discrete-time systems.

Lab outline

Study of various types of signals, Analysis of signals, Filter design, Sampling using different parameters, MATLAB-based simulation tools box for signal processing, Simulation and development of basic signal processing algorithms, Aliasing, Quantization and Internal arithmetic operations, Signal generation and multi-rate processing.

Recommended Books

1. Gordon E. Carlson, “Signals and Linear System Analysis” 2nd Edition 1998, John Wiley & sons, Inc ISBN: -10.0-471-12465-6.
2. Simon Haykin, “Signals and Systems” 2nd Edition 2003. John Wiley & sons, Inc ISBN: -10.0-471-37851-8
3. Oppenheim and Sillsky, “ Signals and Systems” Prentice Hall

## Embedded System Design – ES 302

Disciplines                               :           B.E. Electronic Engineering

Term                                        :           First Term  Third Year

Effective                                  :           09ES-Batch and onwards

Marks                                      :           Theory (100)               Practical (50)

Objectives:      Introduce the trends and challenges in the design of embedded systems and teach chip technologies and design tools needed for these systems.

Course Outline:

Basic of Embedded system, Trends and challenges in embedded system design, Introduction to the design and use of single-purpose processors (hardware) and general-purpose processors (software), Memories and busses, Hardware/software tradeoffs, Advanced computation models, Control systems, Chip technologies, Modern design tools, Embedded processor selection, Hardware / firmware partitioning, Glue logic , Circuit design, Circuit layout, I/O interface with 8255A PPE (Programmable peripheral interface), PIC  (Programmable Interrupt Controller) and  Direct Memory Access Controller (DMAC). Study of Intel 8051; Microcontroller architecture and instruction set.

Lab Outline:

Each student will be required to build and debug a micro-controller board. The course will culminate with significant final project which would extend the base microcontroller board completed earlier in the course.

Recommended Books.

1. Frank vahid and Tony D. Givargis, “Embedded System Design: A Unified Hardware / Software Introduction, John Wiley & sons, Inc ISBN: 047136782.
2. Scott Maekenzie “ The 8051 Microcontroller” AROUND.S. BERGER “Embedded System Design an introduction to process tools & techniques, Edition 2002.
3. Han-way-Hang PIC Micro controller : An introduction to software & hardware interfacing, Thomson Delmar learning: 1 Edition July 2004, ISBN: 1401839673.
4. Muhammad Ali Mazidi, Jaince Mazidi & Rolin Mc Kinlay, 8051 Micro controller & Embedded system, 2nd Edition-2005 Prentice Hall, September 2005 ISBN: 013119402X.

## Probability & Random Veriables – MS 351

Disciplines                               :           B.E. Electronic Engineering

Term                                        :           First Term  Third Year

Effective                                  :           09ES-Batch and onwards

Marks                                      :           Theory (100)               Practical (00)

Objectives:      Upon completion of this course the students should be able to:

·         Understand the basic of probability and its importance in the design of communication systems.

·         Have an awareness of random signal and to analyze the principles tools to model it random signal and noise.

Course outline:

Set theory, Basic concepts of probability, Conditional probability, Independent events, Bay’s formula, Discrete and continuous random variables, Distributions and density function, Probability distributions (Binomial, Poisson, Hyper geometric, Normal, Uniform and Exponential), mean, variable, standard deviations, moments and moments generating functions, linear regression and curve fitting, limits theorems, stochastic Processes, first and second order characteristics, Applications, Autocorrelation,  Auto Covariance Stationary Processes, Wide Sense Stationary Processes Strict Sense Stationary processes, Transformation of Stochastic Processes, Correlation, Linear Mean Square Estimation and Filtering Problems, Ergodic Process, power Spectrum, Thermal Noise, White noise, band-Limited white noise, Linear systems with random inputs, Optimum Linear Systems, Application.

Recommended Books

1. Peyton Z. Peeples, “Probability, Random Variables and Random Signals Principles”, Mc-Graw Hill International Edition.
2. Robert Grover Brown, “Introduction to Random Signals and Applied Kalman Filtering” John Willey and Sons.
3. Susan Milton and Jesse C Arnold, “Introduction to probability and Statistics: Principles and Application for Engineering and the Computing Sciences” Fourth edition, Mc – GrawHill, ISBN: 007246836.
4. B.P Lathi, “Modern Digital and Analog Communication Systems” Holt, Rinehart & Winslon Series.

## Integrated Circuit Design & Application – ES 303

Disciplines                               :           B.E. Electronic Engineering

Term                                        :           First Term  Third Year

Effective                                  :           09ES-Batch and onwards

Marks                                      :           Theory (100)               Practical (50)

Objectives:      Teach the analysis, Design and application of Operational amplifier, Introduce the fabrication of Integral Circuits.

Course Outlines:

Differential Amplifier

differential amplifier using BJTs and FETs (DC and AC analysis) , Current sources, Differential Amplifier using Darlington configuration.

Operational Amplifiers

Ideal Op-amp, Analysis of op-amp action, Op-amp specifications, Interpreting Op-amp data sheets. CMRR (Common Mode Rejection Ratio), Offset voltage an current, Temperature rating, Output swing, Slew rate, (frequency response).

OP-AMP circuits and applications

(Amplification, Inverting, Non-inverting, Voltage follower, Summing amplifier, Integrated, Differential), Schmitt trigger, other applications, Analogue and digital circuit interface with applications. Multivibrator (Astable, Bi-stable and Mono Stable). 555 Timer IC, IC voltage regulators, Waveform generating ICs.

Active Filters

Introduction to Active Filters and their types.

VLSI Design

Presentation of concepts and techniques used in fabrication of VLSI (Very large Scale Integrated Circuit), integrated circuit layout, NMOS(N-Channel Metal Oxide Semi Conductor) layout and fabrication Design issues.

Lab Outline:

Comparator Analysis, Non-inverting Amplifier, Digital to analog Converter, Dual regulator, Switched capacitor voltage converter. Op Amp DC characteristic measurement, Op-Amp speed, single supply Op-Amp, Function generator, Phase locked loop frequency synthesizer.

Recommended Books

1. Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C, Smith, “Micro electronic circuits” 5th Edition, 2003, Oxford University press, ISBN-10:0195142519, ISBN-13:978019542518.
2. Thomas Floyd and David Buchla “Basic Operational Amplifier an Linear Integrated circuits” 2nd Edition 1999 Prentice Hall ISBN-13:9780130829870
3. Rober T-Paynter “Introductory Electronic Devices and Circuits” 9th International Edition 1997
4. Zainalabdin Navabi “ verliog Computer-based Training Course” 1st Edition, 2002, McGraw-Hill ISBN: 0071374736.

## Control Systems – ES 304

Disciplines                               :           B.E. Electronic Engineering

Term                                        :           First Term  Third Year

Effective                                  :           09ES-Batch and onwards

Marks                                      :           Theory (100)               Practical (50)

Objectives:      To teach the theory and methods of design and analysis of feedback control systems

Course Outline:

Introduction to Control Systems, Open loop and closed-loop system and their transfer functions, block diagrams, Introduction to modeling, Formation of differential equations of Electrical, Mechanical and other physical systems Transfer function, Stability Routh’s Stability Criterion. Types and analysis of feed back control systems, Root Loci Techniques, Bode plots, Polar Plots, Nyquist stability criterion, Gain and phase margins, Steady-state and transient response of first order, Second order and higher order systems. Introduction to state space concepts and design techniques, formation and solution of state equations, Eigen values and Eigen vector, Transfer function matrices complete state controllability and complete state observe ability, introduction, features and characteristics of PID Controllers.

Lab Outline:

Familiarization with MATLAB Control System tool box and MATLAB-SIMULINK tool box: simulation of step response and impulse with unity feedback using MATLAB: determination of root locus, Bode plot, and Nyquist plot using MATLAB; determination of PI, PD and PID controller action of first-order simulated process.

Recommended Books

1. K Ogata, “Modern Control Engineering”, Fourth Edition, 2002. Prentice Hall, ISBN 13:9780130609076.
2. Benjammin C. Cuo, “Automatic Control System” Eighth Edition, 2003, John Wiley & Sons, ISBN-10:0-471-38148-9
3. S.K. Bhathacharya “Control System Engineering”
4. Richard C Dorf. & Robert H. Bishop. “Modern Control System” 11th Edition 2007, prentice Hall: ISBN-10:0132270285 & ISBN-13:978-0132270281.

## Wave Propagation & Antennas – ES 305

Disciplines                               :           B.E. Electronic Engineering

Term                                        :           Second  Term  Third Year

Effective                                  :           09ES-Batch and onwards

Marks                                      :           Theory (100)               Practical (50)

Objectives:      To familiarize the students to Electromagnetic wave propagation in different media and study of features and working of various types of antennas.

Course Outline:

Uniform Plane Wave propagation.

Review of Maxwell’s equations, Phase and group velocity, Properties of conductors and dielectrics motionless wave equation, guided waves, pointing theorem.

Transmission lines

Types of transmission lines, Characteristic impedance of a transmission line, Transmission line parameters, Finite length transmission line, Properties of transmission line, Couplers of transmission lines.

Wave Propagation in Transmission Media.

Traveling waves and standing waves, TE (transverse electric) waves, Tm (transverse magnetic), Principal mode of propagation, Waves attenuation between parallel planes.

Ground Wave Propagation

Plane earth reflection, space and surface waves, spherical earth propagation Tropospheric waves need confirmation.

Ionosphere waves

Introduction to ionosphere. Ionosphere wave propagation, Reflection and refraction in wave propagation, Attenuation in ionosphere waves, Regular and irregular variations of ionosphere.

Antennas and Radiating System

Introduction to antennas Properties of two element array, Vertical and Horizontal patterns in broadcast arrays, Multiplication pattern, Linear arrays, binomial arrays, Antenna gain and Effective area, Antenna terminal impedance, Transmission loss between antenna resistance, Reciprocity Theorem, Introduction to microwave antennas (horn, parabolic horn, and their parameters)

Lab Outline:

Measurement of line attenuation, Measurement of reflection co-efficient using the reflectometric bridge, Familiarization with real time simulations of antenna radiation, pattern (magnitude &frequency response. The dipole in free space, effects of surroundings, dual sources, gain, directivity & aperture , ground reflections, the monopole, phased monopoles, resonance, impedance & standing waves, return loss & VSWR measurements. Parasitic elements. Multi element parasitic arrays. Stacked & Bayed arrays.

Recommended books

1. Antenna Theory Analysis & Design  By A.C Balanis.
2. Kraus. J.D and Kraver K.R “ Electromagnetics” McGraw-Hill International Edition.1992.
3. Jordan E.C “Engineering Electromagnetics and radiating systems”.
4. Marshall S.V “Electromagnetic concepts and Applications” Prentice-Hall International Edition 1990

## Analogue & Digital Communication – ES 306

Disciplines                               :           B.E. Electronic Engineering

Term                                        :           Second  Term  Third Year

Effective                                  :           09ES-Batch and onwards

Marks                                      :           Theory (100)               Practical (50)

Objectives:           Develop fundamental understanding of communication systems with emphasis on signal modulation techniques. Teach both analog and digital techniques.

Course Outline

Introduction and Block diagram of a communication system. Definition and importance of Modulation and Demodulation.

Amplitude Modulation

Time-domain and frequency-domain representation of AM Waves. Double sideband (DSB), Single sideband (SSB) and vestigial sideband(VSB). Application of DSB, SSB & VSB. Demodulation of the above AM Systems.

Angle / FM Modulation

The time domain and frequency domain representation of FM and PM waves Comparison of FM and PM, Narrow band wideband FM. Demodulation of FM and PM Signals.

Pulse Modulation

Introduction and Block diagram of digital communication system, Pulse amplitude modulation, pulse width modulation, pulse position modulation, pulse code modulation (PCM), Differential PCM, Delta modulation.

Digital Modulation Techniques

Channel capacity, Shannon Hartley theorem, ASK, FSK, PSK, QPSK, QAM.

Multiplexing

Time Division multiplexing, Bit and Byte interleaving, Frequency Division Multiplexing, Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing, Wave length Division Multiplexing.

Spread spectrum modulation

Advantages and Disadvantages of spread Spectrum modulation. Direct sequence and Frequency-hop spread spectrum.

Information Theory

Information content of a message, Average information per symbol and source information rate. Discrete and continuous channels. Huffman coding.

Lab Outline:

Study and analysis of analog and digital modulation and demodulation techniques. AM, FM, DSB, SSB, ASK, FSK, PSK and QAM. Study of pulse modulation techniques: PAM, PWM, PCM.

Study of different multiplexing techniques: Time division multiplexing (TDM), Frequency division multiplexing (FDM), wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), MATLAB / SIMULINK modeling and simulation of a simple transceiver ; a mini project is recommended.

Recommended Books

1. B.P Lathi. “ Modern Digital and Analog communication System” Third edition, 1998, oxford University Press ISBN-13:9780195110098.
2. Leon couch, “Digital & Analog communication System”, Seventh Edition, 2007, Prentice Hall ISBN: 978013142492.
3. Dunlop. J. Smith. “ Telecommunication Engineering”  ISBN-0442305869, ISBN-0748740449
4. Simon Hykin “ Communication Systems” 3rd Edition, ISBN-0471178691
5. Couch. W.C  “Analog & Digital Communication Systems.
6. Wayne Tomasi “Advance Communication Systems” Prentice Hall, ISBN: 0130221260
7. G. Kennedy. “Electronic Communication Engineering”
8. Frenzel “Communication Electronics”

## Numberical Methods - MS 352

Disciplines                               :           B.E. Electronic Engineering

Term                                        :           Second  Term  Third Year

Effective                                  :           09ES-Batch and onwards

Marks                                      :           Theory (100)               Practical (00)

Objectives:      Teach the use of computers for the numerical solution of engineering problems.

Course outline:

Error analysis

Type of errors (relative, Absolute, Inherent, Round off Truncation), Significant digits and numerical instability, Flow chart, Use of any Computation tools to Analyses the Numerical Solution.

Linear Operators

Functions of operators, Difference operators and the derivative operators, identities.

Difference Equations

Linear Homogeneous and non homogenous difference equations.

Solution of Non-Linear Equations

Numerical methods for finding the roots of transcendental and polynomial equations (Secant, Newton-Raphson, Cheyshev and Graeffe’s roots squaring methods) Rate of convergence and stability of an iterative method.

Solution of Linear Equations.

Numerical Methods for finding the solutions of linear equations(Gauss Elimination, Gauss-Jordan Elimination, triangularization, Cholesky, Jacobian and Gauss-Seidel)

Interpolation & Curve Fitting

Lagrange’s Newton Hermit, Spline, least  squares approximation (Linear and non-linear curves)

Numerical Integrations & Differentiation

Computation of integrals using Trapezoidal rules. 1/3rd Simpson’s rule, 3/8th. Simpson’s rule. Composite Simpson’s and Trapezoidal rules. Computation of solutions of  differential equation using Euler methods, Euler modified method and Runge Kutta method. Numerical solutions of partial differential equations (Optimization problem Simplex method) Steepest Ascent and Steepest  Descent Methods.

This Subject is to be supplemented with extensive computer exercise.

Recommended Books

1. Steven C. Chapra, Raymond P. Canale. “Numerical Methods for Engineers” Fifth Edition 2002, McGrawHill, ISBN: 0073101567
2. Curtis F. Gerals, “Applied Numerical Analysis” Seventh Edition 2003, addition Wesley Publishing company, ISBN: 0321133048

## FPGA-Based System Design – ES 307

Disciplines                               :           B.E. Electronic Engineering

Term                                        :           Second  Term  Third Year

Effective                                  :           09ES-Batch and onwards

Marks                                      :           Theory (100)               Practical (50)

objectives:      Teach the design of digital electronic circuits with field programmable arrays.

Course Outline

Introduction to Programmable logic devices, PLD arrays, Classification of PLDs, PLD architectures the PROM Programmable arrays logic (PAL), Programmable logic (PLA), Digital Design and FPGA, FPGA-based system design, manufacturing process, transistor characteristics, CMOS logic gates, wires, registers and RAM, package and pads, FPGA architectures, SRAM-based FPGAs, permanently-programmed FPGAs circuit design of FPGA fabrics, architectures of FPGA fabrics, logic design process, combinational network delay, power and energy optimization, arithmetic logic elements, logic implementation using FPGAs, physical design (PnR) for FPGAs, synthesis process, sequential design using FPGAs, sequential machine design process, sequential design style, FSM design, ASM design.

Lob Outline:

Introduction to PLDs, SPLDs and verliog HDL. Gate-level modeling, data flow modeling, behavioral modeling, design, simulation, synthesis and fitting of combinational circuits. Design and implementation of and FSM and memory.

Recommended Books

1. Wayne Wolf, “FPGA-based System Design”, with CD-ROM, 2004 prentice Hall, ISBN: 0131424610.
2. Samir Palnifkar, “Verilog HDL” Second Edition,  200, Prentice Hall, ISBN: 0130449113.
3. Michael D. Ciletti, “ Advance digital Design with the Verilog HDL” first Edition, 2003 Prentice hall ISBN: 0130891614
4. Michael John Sebastian Smith “ Application- Specific Integrated Circuits” First edition, 1997, Addison Wesley, ISBN: 0201500221.

## Digital Signal Processing – ES 308

Disciplines                               :           B.E. Electronic Engineering

Term                                        :           Second Term  Third Year

Effective                                  :           09ES-Batch and onwards

Marks                                      :           Theory (100)               Practical (50)

Objectives:           This course deals with the breadth and depth of digital signal processing, Analysis of Discrete time signals and Systems, Discrete Fourier frequency analysis, Realization structure, analysis and design methods of Fir & HR filters. The course will also enable the students to use MATLAB other DSP software and DSP processors.

Course Outline

Introduction

Introduction to discrete-time Signals and System, Convolution sum, Auto convolution  and correlation of discrete-signal.

Frequency domain Analysis

Pulse transfer function, poles and zeros. Stability impulse, step and ramp response of linear time invariant systems.

Discrete Fourier Transform, Power Density spectra, Discrete-Time Fourier Transform, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)

Digital filters

Introduction to filters, Butterworth and Chebyshev approximation of analogue filters finite impulse response (FIR) and infinite impulse Response (IIR) filters.

Design of FIR filter

Window methods, Frequency Sampling method, Optimum methods, Design of FIR Differentiators and Hilbert Transform, Realization and Implementation issues.

Design of IIR Filter

Pole-zero method, Approximation of derivatives, methods Z-Transform method, impulse Invariance method, Bilinear Transformation methods.

Design of Digital Filters based on Least-Squares Methods

Multirate Digital Signal Processing

Introduction, Decimation, Interpolation, Sampling rate conversion by rational factor, Filter design and implementation of sampling rate conversion, Multistage implementations of sampling rate conversion, Sampling rate conversion of band pass signals, Applications of multirate signal processing.

Power spectrum estimation

Computation of the energy density spectrum, the  periodgram. The use of the DFT in power spectrum estimation. Non parametric and parametric  method for power spectrum estimation.

Adaptive DSP

Introduction, adaptive Noise canceller Filter, least squares and Recursive least squares method, Wiener-Hoof  equations, least mean squares algorithm, application.

Lab Outline:

MATLAB based simulation tool box for signal processing, simulation development of basic signal processing algorithms, study of general signal processing, concept such as sampling, aliasing, quantization, internal arithmetic operation, signal generation, spectrum estimation and fast transforms, sampling rate conversation and multi-rate processing, digital filter design.

Recommended Books.

1. M. Ifeachor and B.W Jarvis, “ Digital Signal Processing” a practical Approach”, Prentice Hall, ISBN-0201596199.2003
2. J.G Proakis and D.G Manolakis, “ Digital Signal Processing” Macmillan publishing Company.
3. Allan V.Oppenhiem, “ Digital Signal Processing”.
4. Sen. M Kuo, “Digital Signal Processors: Architecture, Implementation and Applications,” 1st Edition 2005, Prentice Hall, ISBN: 0130352144.